中国最后的驯鹿部落——敖鲁古雅 Aoluguya, the last reindeer tribe in China

艺术家 | 王伟 Wang Wei

  • 鄂温克族是中国北方人口较少的民族之一。在历史上曾被成为“索伦”、“通古斯”、“使鹿部”等,1958年根据民族意愿,被称为“鄂温克族”。由于鄂温克族生产实践方式的差异,鄂温克族又被分为农业鄂温克人、牧业鄂温克人、使鹿鄂温克人。17世纪中叶,使鹿鄂温克人从贝加尔湖流域的勒拿河一带,游猎迁徙到额尔古纳河流域,在大兴安岭密林中靠狩猎和饲养驯鹿为生。生活在内蒙古自治区根河市敖鲁古雅鄂温克民族乡的使鹿鄂温克人是从原始社会末期直接进入社会主义社会的一个特殊的少数民族群体,历史上被称为“使鹿部”,是“中国最后的驯鹿部落”,也是中国境内迄今唯一饲养驯鹿和保存“驯鹿文化”的民族。
      Ewenki is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in northern China. In history, it has been called "Solon", "Tungus", "Shi Lu Department" and so on. In 1958, according to the national will, it was called "Ewenki nationality". Due to the differences in the production practice of Ewenki, Ewenki is divided into agricultural Ewenki, animal husbandry Ewenki and Shilu Ewenki. In the mid-17th century, the luewenki people migrated from the Lena river area in the Baikal Lake basin to the Erguna river basin for hunting and raising reindeer in the dense forests of the great Khingan mountains. The Shilu Ewenki people living in Aoluguya Ewenki nationality township, Genhe City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are a special ethnic group that directly entered the socialist society from the end of primitive society. Historically, they are called "Shilu tribe", which is "the last reindeer tribe in China", and also the only people in China who raise reindeer and preserve "reindeer culture".